Utilising drone in archaeological field by the functions of 3D imagining, aerial imagery and mapping.

We have been talking about drones application in many areas such as agriculture, construction and land surveying. This is due to the widespread use of drones in this sectors and many improvements through R&D have been done to build the ideal drone for industrial usage.

However, in other smaller industries such as weather forecasting and archeology, the utilisation of drones to aid the processes is not fully adopted yet.

Nevertheless, these smaller industries have started to see the potential of drones technology that can be adapted into their workflow. In this article, we will be learning how drones can be utilised in the archaeological field.

Archaeological field revolves around discovering the relics of past human activities and nature occurrences. Archaeological processes normally revolve around digging and unearthing certain sites that hold historical artefacts.

How do drones are helping out these discoveries then?

Aerial Identification

According to Allison Dickens, manager of the Cambridge Archaeological Unit (CUA) within the University of Cambridge, “Drones provide key surveying capabilities and point the way to new excavation sites.”

This is due to the fact that drones can provide aerial view of an area. The identification process the site can be more effective as researchers would be able to see more than identifying from ground view.

This can be effective to survey the area for other potential key areas that may hold buried ruins or artefacts.


LiDAR reveals the underlying history of a landscape. Image from Kate Johnson.

Using LiDAR, some new discoveries which were not visible to human’s bare eyes have been found. The structures which were buried under the ground is easily distinguished by using LiDAR technology.

Evacuation Process Progress

While some archaeologists used drones for pre-excavation process, there are researchers that used drones right throughout the excavation till the end. Close-up, vertical and rapid shots of the digging process and area are taken using drones.

Bird-eye view will enable the detailed planning of the excavation process, by identifying the key areas for digging and time estimation on each site.

3D Model

Some historical sites may have ruins or build-up of ancient building but the digging process must be done in order to learn more about that particular site. But digging the site means destroying the structure above the ground. 

Here, drones play a very crucial role in taking pictures of the site and remains of the structure. This will enable the researchers to easily build a 3D model later on which will serve a great purpose of understanding that particular historic site.


(Top): A drone photograph of the ancestral Hopi village of Homol’ovi IV, a pueblo dating to the latter half of the 13th century, located in Winslow, Arizona. (Bottom): A screen cap of a 3D virtual model of Homol’ovi IV built using drone photographs.
DOUG GANN/ARCHAEOLOGY SOUTHWEST

Imagining Landscape

With the imagery function of drone, the landscape surrounding the excavation area can be easily captured and obtain. The surrounding landscape and terrain would help the researches imagining how the area looked like back then.

Conclusion

The drone technology is getting recognised day by day. Although it is pretty new in some areas such as archaelogy and research, more and more improvement can be done to accomodate certain needs in the field. With this, it is clear that drones are now proven effective to be utilised in many areas to help reducing the cost and capital.

Unprecedented natural disasters can cause many casualties when it hits populated areas. Authorities and government bodies will be on highest alert and sparing nothing to save many lives as possible.

Disaster management bodies will be struggling to address rescue missions as well as making ample preparations in regards to the possibilities of worsening conditions. This reason is specifically where authorities need to make quick decisions to ensure the safety of the affected population.

Let’s find out why drone is considered to be the perfect tool in search and rescue (SAR) missions.

Introduction

Drones first came into the SAR operative scene to act as the replacement for expensive usage of helicopters and light aircraft. This is because using this type of aircraft is proven to be expensive and sometimes are not effective.

Hence, some SAR team adopted UAS to further assist the surveillance activity but later on drones proved to be capable to serve other aspects and processes of.

Surveillance

Of course, drone is widely used in reconnaissance and surveillance in many sectors such as in military. The effectiveness of drones in monitoring and surveillance uses in SAR is mainly credited to its capability to mount many types of camera payload.

Cameras such as thermal camera and high zoom camera are priceless in the SAR operations. Let’s take the example of missing person case which normal SAR operations would normally involve SAR personnel flying in helicopter or light aircraft at a low altitude while scanning the area using naked eye, hoping to catch a glimpse of the missing person.

While this is posibble in mission flat terrain and less dense forest canopy, it is not ideal to do so in elevated Earth surface and dense forestry. Drones such as DJI’s Mavic 2 Enterprise is ideal to be used both in day and night time since it can be fitted with thermal camera and beam light.

Drones are also favoured as it is able to manoeuvre in tight spots and more thorough search operations can be done

In other instances such as flooding, earthquake or accident, drone can be used to monitor the damages, locating and identifying survivors.

Take a better look at how drone is used in SAR scouting and surveillance in the video below.

SAR using thermal camera (During night time)

SAR using high zoom camera

Rescue operations

Drones in rescue operations are mostly used to send in survival kits and foods as well as helping SAR teams to deliver operative tools such as ropes to the victims.

This is more effective than plane or helicopter food drop as drones can drop the packages at the precise location, in case the victims are injured or unable to leave the area. It is very helpful in the sense that rescue teams will take longer time to reach the victims due to obstacles such as treacherous terrains and natural blockades.

DJI Matrice series drones are essentially optimum for these kinds of task as it can carry high payload while still having good visibility.  Some of the Matrice series drone such as Matrice 200 is engineered with water and wind resistance features which are suitable for SAR operations.

Bottom line

Ultimately, drones are getting more and more recognition in various industries, and the effectiveness in SAR is undoubtedly proven. However, few shortcomings such as battery and flight time that can be improved to increase the efficiency of drones usage in SAR missions.

We have been talking a lot about how drones are used across industries, serving as the key to various automated processes such as mapping, spraying and so on. Precision mapping particularly has seen massive drone integration into its processes. That may be credited to the fact that the mapping accuracy is on par with the conventional land survey and reliable.

In this article, we will be looking at the mechanism behind surveying drone that has rendered it to be extremely useful in land surveying and construction industry.

Real-Time Kinematic (RTK)

RTK stands for Real-Time Kinematics which is a GPS/GNSS technique used to enhance the precision of position data received from satellite-based positioning systems. RTK is centred on the usage of fixed base points which wirelessly sends out corrections to a moving receiver to increase the accuracy of GPS signals.

The satellite and base station corrections will enable more accurate and the GPS engine can fix the position of the antenna to within 1 – 2cm. Traditional GPS receivers, like the ones you can find in your smartphone, or on most robotic platforms could only determine their position with 2-4 meters accuracy. 

Base point is actually a single GCP that constantly provides correction and calibration of the drone’s locational data. Successive GPS measurements at the base stations are paired with the GPS measurements made by the drone. This provides a mechanism for the reduction and elimination of the errors common between the two measurements. These corrections are applied real-time, requiring the drone and the base stations to communicate with each other constantly throughout the survey.

Image credit via Pix4D

Post-Processed Kinematic (PPK)

Post-Processed Kinematics or PPK is actually similar to RTK except for the fact all the corrections are done after the data collection. This means the need for base points as used in RTK processes is eliminated.

Drones that process data using RTK or PPK do not have different sets of hardware. Instead, a PPK drone merely uses a different processing workflow. Data collected by an RTK drone can be corrected using a PPK process, but it will involve a lot of customization.

Image credit via Pix4D

You should be able to understand the basic mechanism of RTK and PPK before we move on to the comparative advantages that PPK haas over RTK which we will be discussing next week!

Mari kita lihat bagaimana dron diaplikasi dalam industri pertanian.


Dalam artikel yang lepas; Drone 101: Sejarah, Mekanik dan Aplikasi dalam Industri kita telah membincangkan tentang asal-usul dron, mekanisme dron dan aplikasi dron yang sangat meluas dalam industri.

Teatpi, kita sebenarnya hanya menyentuh permukaan sahaja, terutamanya tentang aplikasi dalam industri kerana masih banyak yang belum diterokai!

Dalam artikel ini, kita akan membincangkan dengan mendalam tentang kegunaan dron teknologi dalam peringkat perindustrian.

Sekarang, dron telah digunapakai dalam pelbagai industri, terutamanua dalam bidang pertanian. Ini adalah disebabkan oleh keberkesanan dron dalam mengurangkan kos dan membuatkan aliran kerja lebih lancar dan efisien. Mari kita lihat bagaimana dron mengubah landskap industri pertanian.

Pemetaan

Image dari DroneDeploy

Pemetaan tidak dianggap sebagai satu langkah yang penting dalam penentuan hasil tuaian yang berjaya atau untuk penyusunan pokok dan tumbuhan. Tetapi sekarang langkah ini diambil berat,

Pemetaan pertanian sekarang digunakan untuk perancangan susunan pokok demi mencapai kapasiti optimum yang akan dapat mencapai kadar tuaian yang maksimum, memeriksa bentuk muka bumi dalam kawasan ladang dan juga analisis pasir/tanah.

Pemetaan juga sangat penting untuk memastikan tiada ruang tanah yang kosong dalam kawasan ladang yang luas. Selain itu juga, pemetaan juga sangat penting untuk pemerhatian saliran air, semburan racun serangga dan baja, dan juga proses tuaian.

Pembenihan

Kebelakangan ini, beberapa petani dan syarikat berasakan pertanian sudah mula menggunapakai dron untuk proses pembenihan pokok. Ini adalah disebabkan bahawa UAV boleh melengkapkan proses pembenihan dengan sempurna dalam cara penyebaran benih yang lebih seragam dan kadar pembenihan yang lebih tinggi.

Pemantaun tanaman

Pemantauan pokok-pokok secara berkala sepanjang proses pembesaran dan pertumbuhan berlaku adalah sangat penting untuk menentukan kesihatan pokok dan juga untuk mengenalpasti sebarang masalah seperti jangkitan, serangan serangga perosak atau kekurangan zat atau air dan lain-lain.

Mengenalpasti jangkitan atau masalah yang berlaku kepada tanaman amatlah penting kepada petani supaya mereka boleh menjalankan langkah pencegahan dan pembetulan untuk mengelakkan masalah tersebut daripada merebak dengan lebih meluas.

Proses in boleh dilakukan oleh drone dengan mengenalpasti spektrum cahaya yang diserap dan dipantulkan oleh daun tanaman. Teknik in dipanggil Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI).

Data NDVI ditangkap oleh kamera yang dimuatkan yang dapat mengumpul gelombang cahaya tampak, terutamanya cahaya dalam/dekat kepada kategori inframerah. Ini adalah bersandarkan kepada fakta di mana tumbuhan yang sihat akan menyerap gelombang cahaya tampak dan memantulkan cahaya inframerah.

Semakin sihat tanaman, semakin banyak cahaya inframerah dipantulkan.

Penyemburan

Penggunaan dron sebagai alat semburan sekarang sedikit demi sedikit telah menggantikan proses peracunan galas oleh pekerja secara manual. Populariti ini boleh disandarkan kepada keberkesanan yang terbukti dengan penyemburan menggunakan dron untuk ruang tanah yang luas.

Teknik peracunan konvensional kadang-kadang dianggap sebagai tidak efektif dan mahal dan juga berbahaya kepada pekerja. Keluasan tanah yang diracun melalui penggunaan tenaga buruh juga bergantung kepada saiz tenaga kerja.

Ini membuktikan bahawa proses peracunan secara manual adalah jauh lebih mahal dan tidak efisen berbanding dron. Proses peracunan secara manual yang lama akan menyebabkan isu-isu yang perlu diberi perhatian dengan segera akan bertambah buruk, sperti contoh, populasi makhluk perosak akan bertambah atau jangkitan tanaman akan merebak.

Tambahan pula, terdapat beberapa kebimbangan yang telah dibangkitkan tentang risiko kesihatan kepada pekerja yang terlibat dengan proses peracunan kerana pendedahan berpanjangan kepada bahan kimia yang berbahaya.

Pola-V15 merupakan sebuah dron yang direkabentuk sendiri oleh Poladrone yang boleh melakukan penyemburan 60 ekar sehari. Pola-V15 telah menbantu ramai peladang dan petani persendirian dan juga syarikat pertanian untuk meningkat hasil tuaian dan seterusnya, keuntungan.

Pola V-15 dalam kerja-kerja penyemburan.

Kami di Poladrone sentiasa komited dalam menyediakan penyelesaian perindustrian yang efektif, cekap dan berpatutan dengan membawa masuk drone. Kami adalah pakar dalam menyerap dron untuk kegunaan industri yang berat, bukan hanya dalam sektor pertanian, tetapi juga dalam industri lain seperti sektor pembinaan, minyak dan gas dan banyak lagi.

Berminat dengan operasi dan servis kami? Untuk maklumat lanjut, sila layari: https://www.poladrone.com/

Kesimpulan

Secara amnya, teknolgi dron semakin lama semakin menjadi inovatif dan maju setiap hari. Adalah tidak mustahil suatu hari nanti, tugas atau kerja-kerja yang memerlukan tenaga buruh boleh digantikan dengan sistem automatik hasil integrasi bersama dron.

The implementation of drones in the fields of sustainability and scientific research is already an application that will catalyst more and more changes in the future.

As we have stressed in the previous articles, the application of drones on the industrial scale is getting more and more attention due to its effectiveness, but there are still plenty of rooms and untapped potentials of drones that can be further explored to assist in smoother operations.

As such specifically here in palm oil plantation industry. In this article, we will discuss in an extensive manner of how drones can help in expediting the productivity and at the same time resolving issues that are clouding the oil palm industry at the moment.

Issues clouding palm oil industry.

The palm oil industry has long attracted ears and eyes internationally as it is portrayed as a destructive industry to the environment. Often pictured as a practice that took away homes from orangutan and deforestation, how exaggerated is this from the truth?

Image via NTU

The truth is, palm oil industry has been held responsible for 8% from the world’s total deforestation. However, oil palm is not the main cause of deforestation.

Deforestation, in general, has caused many terrible effects towards the environment such as loss in habitat, biodiversity and ecosystem, also higher carbon dioxide output into the atmosphere that will only hasten the global warming process.

In spite of that, Dr Emma Keller from the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) – a charity that works to protect the planet – said that “Palm oil is in close to half of the products we buy in the supermarkets – in everything from shampoos and soaps, to pizzas and biscuits. It’s everywhere.”

The usage of palm oil is in high demand. We cannot avoid it. You might think it will be solved if the oil palm is switched to other vegetable oils in product manufacturing.

Doing that will only make things worse. This is due to the fact that palm oil yield is the highest compared to other crops. Other oil-producing crops such as sunflower, soybean and rapeseed would require more land area for plantation to produce oil. For example, sunflower plantation would take a much wider area to produce 1L of sunflower oil compared to palm oil.

More area for plantation simply means more deforestation activity will happen should palm oil is switched to another alternative. Quoting from WWF, “It is not palm oil that harms the orangutan, nor other agricultural crops that damages the environment. It is unsustainable agricultural production that impacts the environment, affecting natural ecosystems, reducing wildlife habitats, emitting greenhouse gases and polluting freshwater.”

Sustainable palm oil farming

According to the Union of Concerned Scientist, sustainability is a complex idea with many facets, including the economic (a sustainable farm should be a profitable business that contributes to a robust economy), the social (it should deal fairly with its workers and have a mutually beneficial relationship with the surrounding community), and the environmental.

Environmental sustainability in agriculture means good stewardship of the natural systems and resources that farms rely on. Among other things, this involves:

  • Building and maintaining healthy soil
  • Managing water wisely
  • Minimizing air, water, and climate pollution
  • Promoting biodiversity

The goal of sustainable agriculture is to meet society’s food and textile needs in the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Practitioners of sustainable agriculture seek to integrate three main objectives into their work: a healthy environment, economic profitability, and social and economic equity.

Ways how drone can assist in sustainable agricultural practices

Monitoring

Drone is handy when it comes to surveying and monitoring. That being said, monitoring palm oil can be done for various purposes such as tree counting, coverage area, and etc. Drone’s capability to capture accurate images and transform it into a detailed maps with topography, elevation, terrain and so on.

This will be a tremendous aid in the effort of replanting, crop arrangement planning to make sure maximised returns and profit while at the same time keeping the environment’s health in check.

Using drone, one also can identify key areas with a high likelihood of land movement to happen and inject preventive measures before it gets bigger (for example landslide) and that threatens the crops and the habitat in the vicinity.

Soil health

Using a drone to monitor soil health is probably unheard of before. Still, it is slowly emerging as the effectiveness of this method is readily recognised. This method is mainly conducted with clues provided by NDVI analysis of the drone.

Read more about NDVI correlation and soil health

Avoiding pollution

As you might know, drones are now utilised to spray pesticide and fertiliser in industrial farming plantation. This is due to the fact that drones are able to deliver precise results with low resources compared to traditional backpack spraying.

Practising sustainable farming will be meaningless if pollution happens. And drones help to lower the risk of pollution by the precise distribution of pesticide and fertiliser.

Excess of fertiliser will result in algae booming and excess pesticide can harm the aquatic animals when absorbed into the ground.

Featured image via UNDP

Let’s follow this recent interview with Jin Xi Cheong, Poladrone’s CEO to see what made Poladrone as it is now.

For the past 3 years, Polarone has been ramping up and escalating at an incredible speed and steep exponential growth rate. From changing public perception of drone technology, bringing drone as an industrial solution and increasing productivity and output, Poldarone has achieved so much in a short span.
Today, you will be following me, Afiq to conduct an interview with Poladrone’s CEO, Jin Xi Cheong. Let’s get started!

(Afiq) Hello Jin Xi, nice to meet you. Before we start, can you tell us a little bit of your personal story? I mean – things like your age, where do you grow up and what and where did you study.

(Jin Xi) Hi Afiq! I grew up in KL and moved over to Melbourne when I was 14 after Form 2. I completed my secondary studies there, followed by a Bachelor of Aerospace Engineering at Monash University before returning to KL in late 2015. After graduating, I worked as a Finance Analyst at Intel over in Penang to build up experience in my financial literacy before starting Poladrone.

Let’s jump right to our topic today, shall we? You founded a start-up at a very young age. What exactly moved you to make this leap of faith 3 years ago? And what inspired you to come up with the ideation of Poladrone?

From a young age, I knew that I would not be able to work in a large corporate. I was often the chief troublemaker throughout my childhood at school and had a problem dealing with authority, especially when it goes against my personal beliefs. As such, I recall vividly that I told my manager at Intel on the very first day that I would only stay to learn until I found better opportunity elsewhere.

This opportunity presented itself in the form of Poladrone. While I was working at Intel, I was actively pursuing aerial photography as a hobby. The initial idea for Poladrone was actually to make aerial photography easy and quick to everywhere, similar to Polaroid – resulting in the name “Pola”Drone. However, what I quickly realised was that while the hobbyist industry is popular in Malaysia, the number of industry utilising drones for solving industrial problems is somewhat lacking and there are pressing problems to be solved. As with all early stage companies, we quickly pivoted according to the market needs. Within 1 year after joining Intel, I left and started working full time in Poladrone.

As my parents’ hometown is in Kuala Lipis (the centre of Peninsular Malaysia – check your map), we were familiar with the agriculture industry and naturally built our solutions around our own problems. Over the past few years, continuous improvements shaped our company into one of the leading UAV companies for agriculture solutions.

I see. That’s an interesting story. Now, it has been a few years since Poladrone started to operate. I’m sure, like any other start-ups and companies, there are ups and downs in this journey. In your perspective, what was the biggest achievement for Poladrone and what was the biggest challenge/letdown that you and everyone in Poladrone faced so far?

One of the most memorable achievements for us was how we secured our first large customer in the oil palm segment in the early stages of our company. For the oil palm market, counting the number of palm trees in an estate is a critical task as it’s directly linked to their yield forecast and fertiliser allocations. As such, accuracy and speed is extremely important. When we met this particular customer, we were selling them a ‘fully automated AI solution” for counting when in fact, we did not even have a product ready yet. When it came to performing the demonstration of the product, what actually happened was that a few of us sat down and manually counted tens of thousands of trees in a short time span. It was a very manual process but from the perspective of the customer, this ‘algorithm’ got the job done quickly, and very accurately! Thus, we got the contract and since then figured out how to make things more efficient and automated.

In terms of setbacks, we had our fair share of them be it lost contracts, uninterested partners, unconverted investments, but one critical mistake that I made was for a product launch. We were planning for the launch of an important product, and I got carried away by putting too much importance in making the launch look good, instead of targeting the right audience. A lot of things went wrong, but in summary, we realised that we trusted the wrong partner and ended up burning quite a lot of resources without achieving our targets.

Before we wrap this interview up, let’s talk about your vision for Poladrone. 5 years time may be a bit intimidating, let’s see where you visioned Poladrone in 2 years time.

I envision Poladrone to establish a solid footprint regionally around South East Asia and potentially beyond over the next couple of years. We had already established a strong profile within Malaysia through our agriculture solutions and will leverage our expertise to scale our products to neighbouring markets in the region.


Discover how drones are aiding the construction works tremendously by optimising time and material management.


Last week, we have discussed in-depth about the application of drones inside the agricultural field. But as I have stressed this all this time, there’s a whole lot more about drone application that can be realised through the technology advancement.

Today, we will be discussing one of the popular industrial application of drone; construction sector.

Construction sector is one of the biggest industries that is incorporating drone as one of the effective tools to aid the construction process.

Now, let’s see how exactly drone helped out through the various stages of a construction process.

Pre-Construction

A pre-construction survey is a thorough process that documents the condition of the properties adjacent to or neighbouring your construction activity through visual observations, photographs, notes, and other diagnostic devices as warranted by the complexity of the project.

The pre-construction phase is very crucial for the engineers as there are a few things that needed to be surveyed. A construction survey typically consists of determining current site conditions for future above-ground and in-ground infrastructure.

Land surveyors stake elevations for footings, collect topographic data for mapping existing drainage courses, invert elevations and diameters of pipe and manholes perform a number of other services. Land surveying services are used to establish the accurate location of proposed structures, accesses, pipelines, buildings, and other improvements.

The conventional land surveillance practice.
Image via Harbor Compliance

Land surveying method usually involves using human resources, heavy machinery & expensive surveying tools, that produce complex data. In actuality, you can get the job done in half the time & money, with greater accuracy by using drones.

Drones equipped with advanced payloads that can produce high-quality digitised map such as Digital Elevation Models (DEM), Digital Surface Models (DSM), and Digital Terrain Models (DTM).

Related: DEM, DSM & DTM Differences

These maps serve the purpose of the survey process, and in addition to site analysis, boundary & topographic surveys, maps, and plats, they also:

  • Help mitigate the risk of potential future regulatory enforcement actions
  • Minimize or eliminate costly delays in project schedules
  • Maximize project startup efficiencies through comprehensive regulatory planning
  • Provide data which helps define project scope and aids strategic pre-construction planning
A land survey using UAV
Image via Site Design Concept

During Construction

Minimising the risk and avoiding any accident is mainly the priority during the building phase, alongside materials management and quality inspection.

Drones are a lot safer to send in for inspections instead of manual inspection by the workers. Engineers and managers can identify the problems or any issues on the site via complete footage, live or recorded from the comfort of office desks.

Moreover, drones are suitable to be used for construction that is near any waterbody.  Plus, through orthomosaic map produced by the camera payload mounted on drones, can help with detecting deviations and taking early corrective action, thus reducing thousands of dollars in change orders.

Bridge inspection using UAV
Image from statescoop

Progress tracking and reporting to your client can be easier with the high reachability of drones. For example, you can track the level of the building completed simply just by deploying your drone and then comparing orthomosaics across various dates enable precise progress tracking and reporting.

A quite innovative way to use drone in construction is to examine the placement of post-tension cable. You can read more about this here: Using Drones to Reduce Risk in Concrete Construction

Post Construction

With drone, the BIM (Building Information Model) can be produced directly as it provides 360 degrees of views and insight of the building from bird-eye view.

Plus, aerial photography and videography can be a great marketing material of the property as aerial captured photos and videos are quite popular these days. Drones can reach places humans can’t, meaning you can capture a wide range of images of your building. These can be utilized in marketing collateral, on a company’s website, on social media platforms and beyond.

Drone-based method also can help in conducting after completion quality assurance process by identifying defects in the outer side of high-rise building.

On Going Asset Maintenance

Not only limited to the building construction, but also is beneficial in the long run; ie. the building maintenance and damage assessment. The data captured by a drone can be used to plan and improve long-term maintenance of the structure as well. After a project is completed, you can produce the as-built drawings and models created with the help of our drones. This detailed information makes it easier for the owner to renovate, manipulate and upgrade aspects of the facility in the future.

Drones equipped with thermal imaging can also fly over a building and detect if there are leaks in the building envelope. They can also identify areas of leak potential so owners can proactively maintain their facility before a small problem turns worse.

Drones can also help assess damage after a hurricane or any natural disaster. For example, if the roof is torn away by strong thunderstorm ; it is advisable to use a drone to safely identify the extent of the damage and plan for the proper repairs.

Bottom Line

Drone are consciously changing how we are constructing buildings and structures. Information and data that once took days to be collected can now be captured with incredible accuracy in a matter of hours — this translates into huge time and cost savings for anyone.

Like any cutting-edge technology, the research and applications of drones change continually, and we should always be exploring how we can continue to leverage their benefits moving forward.

Let’s explore the extensive application of drones and UAS in the agriculture industry.


In the previous article Drones 101: History, Mechanics & Industrial Applications we’ve discussed the origins of drones and the science at work and various drone applications in industry.

But, we’ve barely scratched the surface, especially about the industrial applications of drones as there are a whole lot more to explore!

In this article, we will discuss in-depth about the utilisation of the technology of drones on the industrial scale, especially agriculture drone.

Drones now are widely applied across different industries, especially now, in the agriculture area because of its efficiency, lower cost and convenience. Let’s explore how exactly drones are rapidly changing the landscape of efficiency in the agriculture industry.

Mapping

Image via DroneDeploy

Mapping in farming was not considered important for a successful harvest or great crops arrangement, but now, it is considered as a vital part of modern farming practice, all thanks to the help from drone technology.

Mapping in agriculture now is used to plan the crop arrangement in order to achieve the optimum capacity for higher harvest rate, survey the terrain and elevation on the farm’s land, and soil analysis.

Mapping also is important in the sense that there will be no empty spaces in the vast plantation to push the harvest rate. Also, mapping is very important to plan out the routes for irrigation, pesticide & fertiliser spraying, and harvesting.

Seeding

Lately, there is an emergence of practice to use drones to not only mapping and monitoring, but also to kick-off the planting process. You can see now that drones are being used for seeding.

This is due to the fact that UAV can deliver the process with more uniform spread and higher success rate. These systems shoot pods with seeds and plant nutrients into the soil, providing the plant all the nutrients necessary to sustain life.

Crop monitoring

Monitoring crops on a regular basis throughout the planting cycle is extremely crucial. This is to determine the individual health level of the plants in making sure that the plants are healthy and if there are any infections or problems (such as lack of water, nutrients, etc).

Detecting infections or problems are important as farmers can administer preventive measure to avoid them from spreading further and doing more damage to the crops.

This process is done by observing the light spectrum absorbed and reflected by the leaf. This method is called as Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI).

NDVI is captured by the mounted payloads (cameras) that capture the non-visible light, particularly the light in/near the infrared fringe. This is on the basis that healthy plants absorb visible light and reflect near-infrared (NIR) light.

The healthier the plant is, the more NIR light will be reflected.

Click here read more or find out how NDVI is calculated

Image via Green Aero Tech

Spraying

Using drones as a spraying medium is now replacing the traditional backpack spraying operated manually by the labour force. This popularity may be credited to the proven efficiency of using a drone for spraying that can easily cover a wide area of land in a single day.

The conventional backpack spraying is sometimes rendered as ineffective and costly, not to mention, hazardous. The area that can be covered manually by the labour force depends on the numbers and productivity of the workers.

This makes knapsack spraying method more expensive and inefficient compared to drone spraying. The longer duration is taken for the backpack spraying to be completed thus caused pressing issues such as pest infestation or fungal infection cannot be dealt with in time and contributed to the total loss in harvest/profitability.

And there are few more concerns raised in concerning the hazardous effect of the direct exposure of harmful chemicals to the workers handling the spraying work.

Drone spraying method has the ability to address the issues involved in the typical backpack spraying. In terms of area coverage, a drone can cover much higher area compared to the manual method.

For example, Poladrone’s own Pola-V15 spraying drone can cover up to 20 hectares a day. Pola-V15 is designed by Poladrone’s own experts and engineers and assembled here in Malaysia and has helped many farmers and business owners nationwide to gain more harvest and profitability.


Pola-V15 in spraying work at a paddy field.

Poladrone’s Operational Team and the farm owners posed with Pola-V15 after the completion of a spraying project.

We at Poladrone have always passionate about providing effective, fast and affordable industrial solutions by bringing drone into the picture. We are specialised in integrating drone technology not only in the agriculture field  but also few other major sectors such as construction, oil and gas and many more.

Interested in our operation and services? You can view more here: Poladrone’s Services

Bottom Line

Drone technology as a whole is getting more and more innovative and advanced day by day. It is not possible that one day, labour-induced tasks in farming (or any industry) can be replaced with a fully automated system by integration of drone into the workflow.

Industrial drone is getting more acceptance these days, as the results are reliable and accurate and time (and cost) saving thus directly contributed to the overall profit maximisation.
If you would like to learn more about drone technology in agriculture and other industries, feel free to contact Poladrone.

Featured image via Interesting Engineering

Explore how drones have evolved when it was first used until now on, the drone’s mechanics that enable them to fly and the modern application of drones throughout industries.


Drones are extremely common these days. And whenever the word ‘drone’ appears, I bet my bottom dollar that 7 out of ten people will relate it to recreational drones that are used for photography and videography.

Little did they know that drones are more than just that. These days, drones are used widely in commercial areas and military purposes too.

Before we go any further, it is important to establish that the term ‘drone’ actually refers to any unmanned aerial vehicle, which means the pilot is actually not on board of the vehicle.

Let’s see how drones have evolved when it was first used until now on, what is the physics behind them that enable them to fly and the modern application of drones throughout industries.

History of Drones

Do you know that the first recorded Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usage was actually to bomb a city?

That’s dark.

In the first Italian War of Independence, Austrian forces sieged the city of Venice after the latter revolted. Austrian soldiers then attacked the city of Venice with unmanned balloons filled with explosives.

Some of these Austrian Balloons were successful, but a number of them blew back and bombed the Austrians’ own lines, so the practice did not become widely adopted.

Image via Military History Now on Twitter

The first unmanned aircraft was created 16 years after the flight of the Wright’s brothers. The drone, called Ruston Proctor Aerial Target. There are few prototypes that were developed through World War I, World War II and Cold War.

You can read more extensively on the history of drones here: Dronethusiast

Drones then evolved via military applications. It was not until 2006 when the American Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) issued a commercial drone permit.

Drone technology was around for so long, but only recently it came into the light and gathered interests from the crowd.

Mechanics Behind Flying a Drone

A typical multirotor drone relies on vertical motion in order to fly. Think of the drone blades as fans. The air coming out of the spinning blades pushes downward on the ground, which in turn pushes the drone into the air. The faster the motors spin, the faster the drone will accelerate off the ground.

Once the drone is airborne it can hover, fly up/down, and left/right. When the drone is hovering the upward thrust of the motors is equal to the downward force of gravity, so the drone will not move up nor down. When the force of the motors exceeds the force excreted down on the drone by gravity, it will then climb higher and vice versa.

Since there are 4 motors, changing one or more of these motors speed, compared to the others will cause the drone to turn or move in a different direction. For example, if the drone is hovering (the upward thrust of the motors is equal to the downward force of gravity), and the 2 motors on the left are given more power, the drone will lift upward on the left side, and this increased power on the left side will start pushing the drone sideways right.

Image via Wired

This is a simple summary of how a multi-rotor drone flies. Fixed wing drones are different, and a bit more complicated to explain (think of a plane).

Modern Application of Drones

Drones nowadays are especially for recreational purposes such as aerial photography and videography. These recreational activities have been in-demand for a lot of people mainly because of the quality pictures from the best cameras and right aerial angles.

But only some people know about industrial drone usage. It had helped governments in disaster management, damage surveillance, and fire fighting. While the public has been using drones to fertilise their crops, survey construction works and pipelines.

Further future drones application includes aerial transportation vehicle, delivery services, healthcare and nature conversation and much, much more.

Here, at Poladrone, we are always easily excited by the mere mention of the word ‘drone’. Founded in 2016 with the mission to accelerate drone revolution, we have long-realised the ASEAN market for drones was heavily focused on hobbyist activities such as racing and photography.

There was a clear gap in widespread utilisation of drones to address industrial problems. Thus, Poladrone was formed with the mission to be the leading drone solutions provider for industrial applications.

As one of the prominent DJI dealers in the region, we always strive to deliver solutions with the best results for our consumers.

View our products and services here.

Mari belajar tentang evolusi dron, fizik dan sains yang membolehkan mereka terbang dan aplikasi moden dron merentas industri.


Kalau sebut pasal ‘drone’ mesti ramai yang fikir tentang dron yang biasa orang pakai untuk fotografi ataupun videografi, kan?

Tapi, dron sekarang juga telah dipakai lebih untuk tujuan komersial dan tujuan ketenteraan. Sebelum kita pergi lebih lanjut, adalah sangat penting untuk kita faham bahawa istilah ‘dron’ merujuk kepada pesawat udara tanpa pemandu atau dalam bahasa Inggeris “umanned aerial vehicle” (UAV), yang mana bermaksud, juruterbang tidak mengendalikan pesawat secara langsung.

Mari kita tengok bagaimana dron telah berevolusi dari kali pertama digunakan hingga sekarang, apa yang sebenarnya yang membuatkan dron boleh terbang dan aplikasi teknologi dron dalam industri-industri pada hari ini.


Sejarah Dron

Adakah anda tahu bahawa kali pertama catatan sejarah tentang dron, dron digunakan untuk mengebom sebuah bandar?

Dalam Perang Kemerdekaan Itali yang pertama, tentera Austria telah mengepung bandar Venice selepas warga Venice memberontak untuk membebaskan diri daripada kekuasaan Austria. Bala tentera Austria kemudiannya menyerang bandar Venice dengan menggunakan belon yang diikat dengan bahan letupan.

Sebahagian dari belon-belon ini berjaya diletupkan di dalam bandar Venice, tetapi ada sebahagian yang ditiup kembali ke dalam kawasan angkatan Austria. Oleh sebab itu, taktik ini tidak diguna pakai lagi.

Imej daripada Weird History di Twitter

Pesawat tanpa pemandu yang pertama dicipta 16 tahun selepas penerbangan pertama oleh Wright Brothers. Dron intu digelar sebagai Ruston Proctor Aerial Target. Ada beberapa prototaip yang telah dibina sepanjang Perang Dunia Pertama, Perang Dunia Kedua dan Perang Dingin.

Anda boleh membaca sejarah dron dengan lebih lanjut di sini: Dronethusiast

Dron kemudiannya berevolusi melalui kegunaan ketenteraan. Pada tahun 2006, Federal Aviation Administration Amerika Syarikat telah mengeluarkan permit bagi dron jenis komersial.

Teknologi dron ini sudah lama wujud tetapi hanya baru-baru ini dipopularkan dan menarik minat orang ramai untuk menceburkan diri.


Mekanik di Sebalik Penerbangan Dron

Multirotor drone, biasanya bergantung kepada daya menegak untuk terbang. Bilah-bilah dron dianggap sebagai kipas. Udara yang melalui bilah-bilah tersebut menolak kebawah melawan permukaan tanah, yang mana akan menolak dron ke udara. Makin cepat motor berputar (rpm) makin laju dron akan melonjak dari permukaan tanah.

Setelah dron ke udara, dron boleh berlegar (statik di udara), terbang ke atas, bawah, kiri dan kanan. Semasa dron dalam keadaan berlegar, daya angkat yang dihasilkan oleh motor adalah sama dengan daya berat daripada graviti. Jadi, dron tidak akan bergerak ke atas ataupun ke bawah. Apabila motor-motor menghasilkan daya yang lebih besar berbanding daya tarikan graviti, dron akan ke udara dengan lebih tinggi, dan begitu juga sebaliknya.

Dengan adanya 4 atau lebih motor, penukaran satu atau lebih dari motor-motor akan menyebabkan dron berpusing atau bergerak dalam arah yang lain. Sebagai contoh, jika drone sedang berlegar-legar di udara dan 2 motor disebelah kiri diberi lebih kuassa (dan menghasilkan lebih banyak putaran), dron akan terangkat dari sebelha kiri dan menolak dron condong ke belah kanan.

Imej dari Wired

Ini ialah penjelasan ringkas bagaimana dron dengan multi-rotor terbang. Dron bersayap mekanisme terbangnya berbeza, lebih kurang sama seperti kapal terbang.


Aplikasi Dron dalam Industri

Hari ini, drone amat popular, terutamanya untuk tujuan rekreasi seperti fotografi dan videografi udara. Dron untuk tujuan rekreasi mendapat permintaan yang tinggi sekarang kerana keupayaannya untuk mengambil gambar yang cantik dan berkualiti tinggi menggunakan kamera yang terbaik dan sudut yang tepat dari udara.

Tetapi, hanya sebahagian sahaja yang tahu akan kegunaan dron di dalam industri dan secara komersial. Dron telah membantu pihak berkuasa untuk memadam kebakaran, mengurus bencana dan pemantauan kerosakan. Orang awam pula, terutamanya syarikat dan perusahaan telah mengguna pakai drone membaja tanaman, memantau kerja-kerja pembinaan dan jaluran saluran paip.

Dron dijangka akan digunapakai secara lebih meluas dalam servis penghantaran, pengangkutan udara, penjagaan kesihatan, konversasi alam sekitar dan banyak lagi.

Di Poladrone, kami sentiasa teruja dengan perkembangan teknologi dron. Ditubuhkan pada tahun 2016 dengan misi untuk menggiatkan revolusi dron, kami telah lama sedar bahawa pasaran dron di ASEAN hanya berfokuskan kepada penggunaan dron untuk rekreasi seperti pelumbaan dan fotografi.

Terdapat jurang yang sangat luas dalam penggunaan dron untuk industri dan ini menjadi isu untuk perkembangan dron di rantau ini. Oleh itu, Poladrone ditubuhkan dengan misi untuk menjadi pembekal servis dan solusi berasas drone untuk kegunaan industri-industri seperti pertanian, industri petroleum dan gas, pembinaan dan banyak lagi.

Sebagai salah satu pengedar sah bagi DJI Enterprise di rantau ini, kami sentiasa komited untuk membawa penyelesaian dengan cemerlang untuk pelanggan kami.

Untuk melihat produk dan servis kami, klik di sini.